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STALACTITES AND STALAGMITES

Stalactites are stony deposits hanging like icicles from the roofs of caves. Stalagmites are similar deposits rising in columns and cones from the caves' floors.
Caves ur chiefly in limestones and chalk formations, bus water dissolves these rocks. For example, Th River Lesse, passing through the ves of n in Belgium, dissolves some five tons of limestone day. It is redeposited as carbonates building up stalactites and stalagmites.
Water seepaging down the v walls and through the roof produces constant dripping and evaporation. Stone icicles form n the v roof, slowly growing with the addition of successive layers of lcium rbonat.
Th word "stalactite" mes from the Greek, meaning "drop b drop." There is also general term dripstone" covering ll formations.
Stalactites are at first hollow, for the depositing of the rbont is faster at the utr ring of the water drop. As the evaporating water deposits its mineral matter, the cavity slowly fills u nd the stalactite becomes solid. When water trickles out of narrow cleft in the roof, instead of small hole, hanging curtain of stone will form instead of conical stalactite.
If the water flows quickly, splashing n the floor of the v, it deposits its lcium carbonate there and small cones and domes of stone lled stalagmites begin to rise. These m grow so high that they block the v ntran.

TH LEARNING SPECTRUM

This r deals with learning, b which we intend to include ll processes which result in knowledge acquisition. Learning n assume mn forms, depending n who the teacher is, how active role the learner assumes, what the learner must do t quir, assimilate and accommodate the new knowledge, etc.
At n extreme, learning is n more than rote mmrization. Commonly, human teacher tells the learner specific bits of information to remember: say, the multiplication table u to NxN plus a ritual for evoking n nswr (the multiplication algorithm) using that table. Rote learning nfers vr little ability to use the memorized infrmtin in nvel ways, but serves as quite n efficient method for transferring well-understood knowledge.
deeper form of learning is b observation, in which se the teacher provides (rbbl carefully-ordered) sequence of stimuli, from which the learner builds models of the nets to be apprehended. This usually takes the form of series of graded examples, each designed to push slightly n the onts formed b its predecessors.
But in most real-life situations, much of the difficult work is in designing and executing clever experiments just to obtain a few new pieces of data. This type of learning is guided b a model, b theory based upon previously sn data.

PREJUDICES

A prejudice arises when you take statistical approach to man X or thing Y. We are prejudiced when we read the labels instd f attentively looking at X or Y. We are prejudiced when we are content with "averaging out."
ll of us rr in ur heads pack of prejudices. We ma b prejudiced against people with immigrant backgrounds. We may have political, racial or religious prejudices, prejudices against people living in other rts of the world and in other parts of our own untr, we n vn b prejudiced against people residing in the next town or in another part of ur city. We may have prejudices about red utomobiles, or black cats, or classical music, or modern art.
We get n unfavourable picture in ur heads and then proceed blindly as though that image were adequate to rrsent all people or things that are included under the label. r we cn form a fvurabl picture and then blind ourselves to ll sorts of unfavourable aspects of X or Y. We find exactly what we are looking for, and we look for what is already present in our minds.
Th word "prejudice" means to pre-judge. Unfortunately, we often judge persn b his nm or b the labels formally applied to him. We tend to act in accordance with the ideas stored inside our heads, refusing to verify ur knowledge.
But we should properly observe the mn standing before us in order to act intelligently and fairly toward him. We ought to know how to deal with concrete individuls who may not fit any abstract idea we have.

EFFECTIVE THINKING IN BUSINESS

Our business life, like our personal life, presents a steady stream of problems. Success in business depends upon how well we meet the day-by-day challenges to ur thinking ability that m before us. No n has 100 r cent score in making sound decisions, but it is possible to train ourselves so we will hv pretty high betting average.
It seems impossible to achieve high degree of success in making sound business decisions without using scientific approach. A scientist does not settle things b arguing about them; he decides things b surveying the facts. Facts first, then opinions. Talking does nt convince the scientist - h knows how easy it is to be misled b preconceived ideas.
h scientific method involves three steps: (1) You use ur imagination and memory for thinking u explanation or possible solutions for ur problems. (2) You analyze them logically, trying to visualize how h solution will work ut. (3) You test ur idea b trying it, letting the facts speak fr themselves.

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